Concentration_-_Forced_Circulation |
]Forced Circulation – Tubular Evaporation – Steam-Based



Industry: Fruit and Vegetables (NAICS 3114) Dairy (NAICS 3115)

NAICS process:


311411 Frozen Fruit and Vegetables

311421 Canned Fruit and Vegetables

311514 Evaporated and Condensed Milk


Process Brief: Water is removed heating a product under pressure and allowing the water to flash-vaporize.

Energy source: Steam/natural gas

Energy Intensity:


Forced circulation tubular evaporators are similar to natural circulation systems with the addition of a pump that forces the product upward in the tubular heater. Forced circulation evaporators were developed for processing liquors because the product circulates rapidly through the heat exchanger and is prevented from boiling by the hydrostatic head maintained at the top of the tube plate. The liquor flash vaporizes in the separator where it encounters a reduction in absolute pressure. The system continuously circulates the product between the separator and the heat exchanger so that the temperature rise in the heat exchanger is only 3 to 5°F. In a typical application, 200-330 pounds of product circulate through the heat exchanger for every pound of water removed.


Forced circulation evaporators are used only for specific products, such as liquors, because the design requires large diameter piping and high capacity pumps. The high fluid flow of the system also leads to high operating costs.







FMC FoodTech Chicago

200 East Randolph

Chicago, IL 60601

Telephone: 312-861-6000

Web site:



Niro Inc.

9165 Rumsey Road

Columbia, MD 21045

Telephone: 410-997-8700

Web site:



Swenson Technology, Inc.

26000 Whiting Way

Monee, IL 60449-8060

Telephone: 708-587-2300

Web site:

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